Buy Cialis No Rx Required

What Hollywood Ignores.....war epics on screen skips mass slaughter of Japanese and German civilians http://thepeopleofpakistan.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/herold2.jpg The Firebombing of Dresden Germany http://people.moreheadstate.edu/students/alsimp01/images/hiroshima1.gif The result of the bombing of Hiroshima By CHARLES BURRESS | The Japan Times | May 7, buy cialis no rx required 2010 SAN FRANCISCO — Does the history diet fed to Americans by Hollywood promote an unhealthy national memory? The latest screen epic about American heroism in World War II — the HBO miniseries “The Pacific” — is clouded by an unintended irony. Creators Steven Spielberg and Tom Hanks, buy cialis no rx required who teamed up also on “Band of Brothers” and “Saving Private Ryan, buy cialis no rx required” have sought to strengthen the authenticity of Hollywood renderings of World War II. Buy cialis no rx required But while such portrayals may give us a keener appreciation of the courage and suffering of U.S. Buy cialis no rx required troops on the battlefield, buy cialis no rx required they also add further weight to a lopsided World War II history that leaves the dishonorable part of America’s wartime behavior buried deeper in national amnesia. In what may be added irony, buy cialis no rx required the widely reported premier of “The Pacific” came but four days after the little noticed anniversary of one of the darkest events in American war history — the March 10, buy cialis no rx required 1945, buy cialis no rx required firebombing of Tokyo. Buy cialis no rx required The two-volume World War II history “Total War, buy cialis no rx required” by Peter Calvocoressi, buy cialis no rx required Guy Wint and John Pritchard, buy cialis no rx required describes the massive napalm attack on Japan’s capital as not only “the greatest air offensive in history” but also “deliberate, buy cialis no rx required indiscriminate mass murder.” The raid by B-29 bombers probably ranks as history’s largest mass killing of civilians in a short time span. Buy cialis no rx required The estimated death toll of 100, buy cialis no rx required000 exceeded the immediate deaths in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, buy cialis no rx required or the Dresden firebombing. “The street was filled with blackened corpses, buy cialis no rx required” air raid survivor Haruko Nihei recently told a U.C. Buy cialis no rx required Berkeley audience on her first trip to tell her story in America. Buy cialis no rx required “There were so many of them that it was hard to walk on the streets.” Then an 8-year-old girl, buy cialis no rx required Nihei survived after falling in the panicked tumult and being covered by other people. Buy cialis no rx required When she came to, buy cialis no rx required she found the bodies on top of her were “black as charcoal.” The U.S. Buy cialis no rx required Strategic Bombing Survey said at the time that “probably more persons lost their lives by fire in Tokyo in a six-hour period than at any time in the history of man.” The inferno was so intense that fleeing victims burst spontaneously into flame and were boiled alive in canals into which they had plunged to escape. Buy cialis no rx required Their agonies were no less severe than those suffered at Hiroshima. Confronting U.S. Buy cialis no rx required mass killing of civilians in WWII — particularly the Tokyo firebombing — is important now, buy cialis no rx required not just because Americans should remember both the good and bad about their history. Buy cialis no rx required The U.S. Buy cialis no rx required has trouble winning hearts and minds in today’s war against terrorists in part because the terrorism blood on America’s own hands leaves it vulnerable to effective enemy propaganda and charges of hypocrisy. In the aftermath of 9/11, buy cialis no rx required Osama bin Laden cited Hiroshima, buy cialis no rx required as if to say the World Trade Center deaths represented only a small taste of the type of warfare that the U.S. Buy cialis no rx required had long ago sanctioned. America was far from the first to bomb cities. Buy cialis no rx required The tactic began as early as the 19th century with bombs dropped from balloons over Venice. Buy cialis no rx required Indiscriminate killing of noncombatants from the air began, buy cialis no rx required according to many historians, buy cialis no rx required in the 1930s. Buy cialis no rx required The Japanese bombing of civilians in the Chapei section of Shanghai in January 1932 “horrified much of the world and anticipated the mass bombings of populations a decade later, buy cialis no rx required” wrote Cornell University historian Walter LaFeber. Buy cialis no rx required The most infamous early example, buy cialis no rx required immortalized in a painting by Picasso, buy cialis no rx required came five years later in 1937 when more than a thousand people died in the German bombing of Guernica. The Japanese military embraced the tactic during the Second Sino-Japanese War, buy cialis no rx required bombing several Chinese cities. Buy cialis no rx required The most destruction came from repeated air raids on Chongqing, buy cialis no rx required China’s wartime capital after the 1937 fall of Nanjing. Buy cialis no rx required Aerial attacks on Chongqing in May 1939 alone claimed an estimated 5, buy cialis no rx required400 lives, buy cialis no rx required according to Mark Selden, buy cialis no rx required a Japan specialist at Cornell. In WWII in Europe, buy cialis no rx required bombing tolls mounted, buy cialis no rx required beginning with German air raids on Warsaw in 1939 and Rotterdam in 1940. Buy cialis no rx required German bombing of British cities in the eight months following September 1940 claimed about 30, buy cialis no rx required000 lives. Buy cialis no rx required British bombing of German cities began in 1942 and was later joined by the Americans. Buy cialis no rx required About 45, buy cialis no rx required000 were killed in raids on Hamburg alone in July and August of 1943. Buy cialis no rx required Nearly as many were killed at Dresden in February 1945. The concentration of carnage saw a significant escalation when America sent waves of bombers over Japan, buy cialis no rx required especially in 1945. Buy cialis no rx required In attacks on 66 Japanese cities, buy cialis no rx required including Hiroshima and Nagasaki, buy cialis no rx required the number of civilians killed by American bombs was “probably close to four hundred thousand, buy cialis no rx required” estimated MIT historian John Dower. In the 2003 documentary “Fog of War” Robert McNamara, buy cialis no rx required who served in World War II under the architect of the bombing campaign, buy cialis no rx required Maj. Buy cialis no rx required Gen. Buy cialis no rx required Curtis LeMay, buy cialis no rx required quoted LeMay’s postwar assessment: “If we’d lost the war, buy cialis no rx required we’d all have been prosecuted as war criminals.” McNamara, buy cialis no rx required who later became U.S. Buy cialis no rx required Secretary of Defense, buy cialis no rx required added, buy cialis no rx required “I think he’s right. Buy cialis no rx required He, buy cialis no rx required and I’d say I, buy cialis no rx required were behaving as war criminals.” But if the U.S. Buy cialis no rx required was guilty of war crimes, buy cialis no rx required then weren’t Japan, buy cialis no rx required Germany and Great Britain also guilty? All of them rained bombs indiscriminately on civilians. Buy cialis no rx required America may have done so with the largest kill ratio, buy cialis no rx required but virtually all laws against killing of innocents are not conditional on the number killed. International law on bombing cities at that time was not clearly established. Buy cialis no rx required A Hague Convention that was drafted in 1923 explicitly banned aerial bombardment of civilians but was never ratified. Buy cialis no rx required The League of Nations unanimously passed a resolution in 1938 outlawing aerial bombing of civilian populations, buy cialis no rx required but Japan and Germany by then had withdrawn from the league and the U.S. Buy cialis no rx required had never joined. The most relevant agreement was the earlier Hague Convention Respecting Laws and Customs of War on Land of 1907, buy cialis no rx required which had been ratified by the major combatants of WWII. Buy cialis no rx required It forbade bombardment of “undefended” towns, buy cialis no rx required bombardment without prior warning and destruction of enemy property not demanded by military necessity. Buy cialis no rx required But those who ordered the later bombings in Asia and Europe, buy cialis no rx required though they were accused by their adversaries of violating international law, buy cialis no rx required typically said they had met the required conditions. At the Tokyo war crimes trial, buy cialis no rx required bombing of cities was not one of the charges brought against the Japanese defendants. Buy cialis no rx required Nor was it charged against leaders at Nuremberg. Buy cialis no rx required “Aerial bombardment had been used so extensively and ruthlessly on the Allied as well as Axis side that neither at Nuremberg nor Tokyo was the issue made a part of the trials, buy cialis no rx required” recalled Telford Taylor, buy cialis no rx required chief prosecutor at Nuremberg. So, buy cialis no rx required should anyone be blamed? One Japanese scholar said the 20th century’s ghastly record of civilian slaughter from the air had its origin in Japan’s attacks on Chinese cities. In the book “Bombing Civilians, buy cialis no rx required” Tetsuo Maeda, buy cialis no rx required who retired in 2007 as a professor of international studies at Tokyo International University, buy cialis no rx required wrote, buy cialis no rx required “The sudden horror from the skies that took place in wars of the 20th century had its roots in tactics used by the Japanese forces during the Asia Pacific War. Buy cialis no rx required This horror boomeranged back to Japan in extreme form with the disasters of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” The argument that “Japan started it” is often expressed, buy cialis no rx required especially by American patriots, buy cialis no rx required in the many debates over “victors’ justice” at the Tokyo war crimes trial and American misdeeds in the Pacific war. Buy cialis no rx required Can earlier Japanese bombing in China — along with German and British bombing in Europe and the uncertainty of international law at the time — exculpate the later American bombing of Japanese cities? International laws of war, buy cialis no rx required though not precisely defined, buy cialis no rx required are generally viewed as including more than just signed treaties and agreements. Buy cialis no rx required Many scholars and jurists, buy cialis no rx required including the judges at Nuremberg, buy cialis no rx required have held that nations are bound also by “customary laws of war, buy cialis no rx required” regardless of what particular treaty was signed by what country. The indiscriminate slaughter of noncombatants violates customary laws of war as well as universal moral values. Buy cialis no rx required It sickens the human soul. Buy cialis no rx required Saying “Somebody else did it too” is no excuse. All nations that bomb civilians are guilty and should account for their actions, buy cialis no rx required and I believe the U.S. Buy cialis no rx required owes a special accounting. Buy cialis no rx required The scale and intensity of American bombing crossed a new threshold and, buy cialis no rx required in the view of some critics, buy cialis no rx required turned the bombing of cities into America’s chief weapon in concluding its war against Japan. “If others, buy cialis no rx required notably Germany, buy cialis no rx required England and Japan led the way in area bombing, buy cialis no rx required the targeting for destruction of entire cities with conventional weapons emerged in 1944-45 as the centerpiece of U.S. Buy cialis no rx required warfare, buy cialis no rx required” Selden wrote. It was the Tokyo attack that “initiated the U.S. Buy cialis no rx required government’s embrace of urban terror bombing as a legitimate form of warfare, buy cialis no rx required” wrote Cary Karacas, buy cialis no rx required an assistant professor at the College of Long Island who studies bombing of civilian populations. In 1945, buy cialis no rx required U.S. Buy cialis no rx required Brig. Buy cialis no rx required Gen. Buy cialis no rx required Bonner Fellers described the U.S. Buy cialis no rx required air raids over Japanese cities as “one of the most ruthless and barbaric killings of noncombatants in all history.” The U.S. Buy cialis no rx required — and especially Hollywood’s shapers of national memory — have a special responsibility also to make amends for past omissions and tell the full truth about the past. Buy cialis no rx required A more forthright confrontation by Americans with their own war crimes would not only provide a model for other nations with dark pasts but also undermine the ability of America’s present enemies to win recruits for committing similar crimes against the U.S. Buy cialis no rx required and its allies. Charles Burress is a San Francisco Bay Area freelance journalist who researched war memory as a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Tokyo and Keio University. Buy cialis no rx required Original article found at: http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/eo20100507a1.html