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I see why John Toland won the Pulitzer. Captivating read. Living History http://www.poorwilliam.net/pix/toland-john.jpg                                                                                                                                                                                       What am I? I've been called everything from an extreme liberal to an ultra-conservative. Cheap lariam online I am neither. Cheap lariam online I have been labeled a "Nazi" because of my numerous interviews with Hitler's adjutants, cheap lariam online secretaries, cheap lariam online doctors, cheap lariam online and military leaders, cheap lariam online both SS and Wehrmacht. Cheap lariam online I loved the remark the Soviets made in 1976 about me being "the leading Western running-dog, cheap lariam online lacky historian." I would have put it on my stationery, cheap lariam online if I bothered to have stationery. Cheap lariam online On the other hand, cheap lariam online the People's Republic of China has published five of my books. I fell for Communism when I was a young man, cheap lariam online like so many others in those days who were idealistic and thought a lot about the world and people. Cheap lariam online We were attracted by the humanitarianism in Communism, cheap lariam online and we were innocent. Cheap lariam online By being with those people, cheap lariam online I learned more about Communism, cheap lariam online and saw how they distorted the truth. Cheap lariam online For example, cheap lariam online when Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, cheap lariam online we were called in and told that we were no longer the American peace mobilizers, cheap lariam online but were now part of a united front against the peace campaign. Cheap lariam online "The hell you say, cheap lariam online" I replied. Cheap lariam online "I'm still against the war." I was criticized for that, cheap lariam online but after the Japanese attack against Pearl Harbor, cheap lariam online I changed. Cheap lariam online I went down and enlisted in the air force. Well, cheap lariam online what am I? God knows! I belong to no school of history. Cheap lariam online I'm not a conventional historian, cheap lariam online but primarily a teller of tales without thesis. Cheap lariam online I deal with history's human side, cheap lariam online portraying history through the experiences of participants of all ranks. Cheap lariam online I write what I call li that you've been Japanized." I replied, cheap lariam online "Yes, cheap lariam online and it's about time." She then asked me why I was writing about Hitler, cheap lariam online and I said:  "I think that he was the greatest mover and shaker of our century.  He changed all of our lives, cheap lariam online and I'm going to try to tell the objective story of Hitler." She then said to me: "Toland, cheap lariam online nobody is objective." And I replied, cheap lariam online "Speak for yourself, cheap lariam online Barbara." As a matter of fact, cheap lariam online I liked her work, cheap lariam online and I have never criticized her books. Cheap lariam online I just couldn't understand why she thought I was a Nazi. Cheap lariam online Was it just because important Nazis visited me at our home? One of them was Hitler's SS adjutant, cheap lariam online Richard Schulze-Kossens. Cheap lariam online I interviewed him in his home in Germany, cheap lariam online and I got great stuff from him. Cheap lariam online He visited our house three times on lengthy stays - he was always bringing me new information. Cheap lariam online I would invite my friends over to meet these Nazis, cheap lariam online whom they also found to be human beings. Cheap lariam online Much of my information came from people who still believed in Hitler. Cheap lariam online But why should I have relied only on Germans who were against Hitler? In fact, cheap lariam online I just couldn't trust those Germans who said after the war, cheap lariam online "I never liked Adolf Hitler!" As a playwright who has written twenty unproduced plays, cheap lariam online I look upon each of my histories as a drama. Cheap lariam online I strive to let the contestants on all sides act freely, cheap lariam online uninhibited by my own conclusions. Cheap lariam online I simply observe them and try to make some meaning out of the drama. Cheap lariam online I take no sides and I treat all the actors equally, cheap lariam online regardless of nationality. Cheap lariam online I try to understand the motivations of those involved, cheap lariam online regardless of rank or status. This is "living history." I tell it as it happens, cheap lariam online without giving any hints or foreshadowings of how the drama will end. Cheap lariam online To accomplish this, cheap lariam online I must first spend many months reading other histories and accounts, cheap lariam online and working in archives and libraries. Cheap lariam online Then I start mass-interviewing. Cheap lariam online I will go anywhere to get a good story, cheap lariam online to get as close to the truth as possible. Cheap lariam online I must go to the places where the battles were fought, cheap lariam online where critical conferences were held. Cheap lariam online I've got to learn what the characters were wearing, cheap lariam online what the weather was, cheap lariam online what they thought -- everything in order to gain insight. Cheap lariam online And that is living history. My concept of living history had its beginnings when I was fourteen years old. Cheap lariam online My father was a singer, cheap lariam online a fine baritone, cheap lariam online and my mother was an artist. Cheap lariam online All our friends were writers, cheap lariam online dramatists, cheap lariam online artists, cheap lariam online and so forth. Cheap lariam online I had no idea what bankers or businessmen were like, cheap lariam online and by the age of twelve I had decided to be a writer. When I was fourteen a man named Porter Emerson Browne came to live with us. Cheap lariam online Porter had been a very successful playwright, cheap lariam online but when his wife died he'd became an alcoholic. Cheap lariam online (My father, cheap lariam online like most Irish, cheap lariam online was sure he could cure anything.) Within a week, cheap lariam online Porter was my idol. Cheap lariam online He was a little fat guy with false teeth, cheap lariam online which he used to take out of his mouth and twirl as he talked to me. Cheap lariam online He once taught me to cheat at cards while twirling his false teeth. Cheap lariam online (He told me that if I was going to be a writer, cheap lariam online I would have to know how to cheat, cheap lariam online so that I wouldn't be cheated by others.) Porter's most famous play was The Bad Man , cheap lariam online a very successful comedy. Cheap lariam online It ran on Broadway for two years and was made into a motion picture with Wallace Beery. Cheap lariam online It was about Pancho Villa. Cheap lariam online But the Bad Man was not a "bad man" -- he was really a good man. I asked Porter why his play was such a success, cheap lariam online and he replied: "I rode with Pancho Villa for two years. Cheap lariam online I knew him. Cheap lariam online I knew that he was a great patriot. Cheap lariam online I wanted to write a play about him and I knew that if I wrote a serious play, cheap lariam online no one would take it seriously. Cheap lariam online So I decided to present him in this way so that for the first time the real truth about Pancho Villa could be understood by the average American, cheap lariam online who was convinced that he was simply a criminal." Well, cheap lariam online this touched me, cheap lariam online and I wanted to do the same thing. Cheap lariam online Porter Browne began to teach me about playwrighting. He stayed with us for two years. Cheap lariam online And before he left, cheap lariam online he told me: "John, cheap lariam online there's one thing that I must imprint in your mind -- never forget, cheap lariam online no matter what you write: don't tell it, cheap lariam online show it." I've been showing it ever since. Cheap lariam online In other words, cheap lariam online most historians talk about and describe everything as if it were not even part of life. Cheap lariam online I use my playwrighting experience to show it from an objective point of view, cheap lariam online to bring it to life. Cheap lariam online And because I interview so many people, cheap lariam online I have sometimes been severely criticized. While I was doing research on the dirigible, cheap lariam online Hindenburg, cheap lariam online I interviewed ten people who had survived the disastrous fire and crash. Cheap lariam online Do you think any of them will ever forget that day? Do you think that anyone who was in any of those great battles of World War II will ever forget what happened to them? Nowadays, cheap lariam online of course, cheap lariam online everybody goes around with a tape recorder and interviews people, cheap lariam online but when I first began writing, cheap lariam online they didn't realize this. When I graduated from high school I was in no shape to go to college. Cheap lariam online So I worked in the Norwalk Tire Factory in order to go to Phillips Exeter Academy to learn how to study. Cheap lariam online Best thing I ever did. Cheap lariam online From there I went to Williams College, cheap lariam online a wonderful school. Cheap lariam online It was very conservative, cheap lariam online but they had two or three left-wing professors so you could hear both sides of every issue. They also had a system whereby if you received a certain mark by your junior year, cheap lariam online you could go into honors work, cheap lariam online working with one teacher. Cheap lariam online I strove to do my best, cheap lariam online and as a result my marks were high enough that I had two honors work teachers. Cheap lariam online One French, cheap lariam online with whom I did French literature and drama, cheap lariam online and the other was a delightful fellow in English who taught me playwrighting. While going to school, cheap lariam online I managed, cheap lariam online my senior year, cheap lariam online the Williams Christian Association Book Store. Cheap lariam online After finding out what books the professors would be assigning in their classes, cheap lariam online I would send my spies to two competing book stores, cheap lariam online where they would buy up all the books for a third of the price that I sold them for. Cheap lariam online As a result, cheap lariam online by graduation day in 1936 I had made more than $5, cheap lariam online000 - which was big money in those days. That day a guy from Esso corporation [now Exxon] came up. Cheap lariam online The man who owned Barnes & Noble (a Williams man) had told him about me. Cheap lariam online So the man from Esso told me that he wanted me to begin as a junior executive with a very good starting salary. Cheap lariam online My first assignment would be in the South Pacific. Cheap lariam online I told him that I was honored by his offer, cheap lariam online but that I would be going to the Yale Drama School because I was going to be a playwright. Cheap lariam online He looked at me and said, cheap lariam online "What a waste of talent!" He didn't realize that I made money so I could write -- it wasn't for the desire of making money. Cheap lariam online Otherwise, cheap lariam online I might have eventually become head of Exxon. Cheap lariam online Wouldn't that be terrible? I didn't want to go back home, cheap lariam online so I went to New York. Cheap lariam online I packed a knapsack and went riding freight trains. Cheap lariam online I loved it, cheap lariam online and I had a marvelous time. Cheap lariam online You meet a better class of people riding freight trains. Cheap lariam online The first time I went to California I hitchhiked. Cheap lariam online But hitchhikers are a low breed. Cheap lariam online On the way I saw a freight train loaded with guys sitting on top, cheap lariam online all waving to me to get on. Cheap lariam online They ranged in age from about 12 to 16 years, cheap lariam online all young farmers. Cheap lariam online They were wonderful people, cheap lariam online guys you could trust, cheap lariam online and they taught me how to ride freight trains. Cheap lariam online So for the next three years I had a wonderful time seeing the best part of America. Traveling like that, cheap lariam online you take along water and newspapers, cheap lariam online which you use as blankets. Cheap lariam online You usually go with three guys. Cheap lariam online The older fellow would guard our bindles. Cheap lariam online (We were called bindlestiffs in those days.) Another guy would set off and hit all the bakeries for day-old bread and meat ends. Cheap lariam online The third guy would be the star of the show. Cheap lariam online He would hit up people for ten or fifteen cents, cheap lariam online which would last us until the next stop. I was Phi Beta Kappa, cheap lariam online and that became my job. Cheap lariam online By studying how it was done, cheap lariam online I became a terrific panhandler. Cheap lariam online I didn't whine or anything like that. Cheap lariam online But I knew how to pick 'em. Cheap lariam online If a guy looks prosperous, cheap lariam online leave him alone. Cheap lariam online I'd stay away from neighborhoods where the lawns are cut clean and neat. Cheap lariam online People there don't like panhandlers. Cheap lariam online But where lawns are neglected, cheap lariam online and there are dogs and children, cheap lariam online they'll help you. Cheap lariam online And if you're really desperate, cheap lariam online go to the very poor. Cheap lariam online They will always give you something to eat. All this taught me so much, cheap lariam online and I wrote all about it. Cheap lariam online The concept of seeing human beings observing them and seeing how they act and interact, cheap lariam online not caring about their religion or rank or anything, cheap lariam online but letting them act, cheap lariam online instead of forcing them to do something they don't do I found this fascinating. By the time I was 41 I had written thirty-five plays none produced; hundreds of unsold short stories and four unpublished novels. Cheap lariam online Two years later I had published a dozen factual articles and my book on dirigibles, cheap lariam online Ships in the Sky. Cheap lariam online Then I visited Washington to research a book on the depression. Cheap lariam online The Army was wonderfully helpful -- they gave me so much material. Cheap lariam online Well, cheap lariam online that afternoon, cheap lariam online I was called by Ted Clifton, cheap lariam online who later became John Kennedy's right-hand man. Cheap lariam online He told me that he had read my book on dirigibles, cheap lariam online and liked the way I treated enlisted personnel. Cheap lariam online He said that he wanted me to do the same for the GI. Cheap lariam online He turned over to me all the materials about the Battle of the Bulge that the historians were working on, cheap lariam online and he said that he would send me over to the Seventh Army in Germany with orders, cheap lariam online and that it wouldn't cost me anything. Cheap lariam online So I set off. Cheap lariam online I didn't know I was going to be a historian. Cheap lariam online I was just going to write a story. I hated all Germans! Naturally, cheap lariam online a good American should. Cheap lariam online And then I arrive in Germany, cheap lariam online where General Bruce Clarke ordered people who had been in the Battle of the Bulge to meet and talk with me. Cheap lariam online Some of these fellows told me about their experiences with the Germans. Cheap lariam online Then, cheap lariam online after a while, cheap lariam online Bruce said, cheap lariam online "Now I want you to really get to know the enemy." General Hasso von Manteuffel was one of the main commanders in the battle. Cheap lariam online He was a famous German commander, cheap lariam online and his grand uncle had been a Prussian field marshal. Cheap lariam online Well, cheap lariam online Clarke phoned him in Bonn where he represented the "lost" province of Prussia, cheap lariam online and he said: "Manteuffel, cheap lariam online Clarke here. Cheap lariam online I'm going to send an American up to see you, cheap lariam online and I'd appreciate it if you would see him for the next five days." So I went to the U.S. Cheap lariam online Embassy, cheap lariam online where we met. Cheap lariam online Manteuffel was wearing civilian clothes, cheap lariam online but he still looked like a soldier. Cheap lariam online He was only five foot, cheap lariam online two inches, cheap lariam online but he was a great athlete. Cheap lariam online I hated him. Cheap lariam online He was the most Prussian of Prussians. Cheap lariam online He looked at me, cheap lariam online in my sloppy clothes, cheap lariam online and so forth, cheap lariam online and he hated me. Cheap lariam online Well, cheap lariam online then we started in. Cheap lariam online As I went after him, cheap lariam online I began to see that this man was honest. Cheap lariam online He was telling me the truth about his relations with Hitler. Cheap lariam online And he said to me, cheap lariam online "Toland, cheap lariam online you only want to know what happened!" And I said, cheap lariam online "Yes." Well then he really opened up and told me everything. After we got to know each other better, cheap lariam online he told me that he was planning to run for public office, cheap lariam online and he asked me what I thouught about a campaign poster that showed him in uniform. Cheap lariam online "Forget it, cheap lariam online" I said. Cheap lariam online "No one is going to vote for you now. Cheap lariam online You ought to go down to southern Germany and live and enjoy youself." " But, cheap lariam online" he said, cheap lariam online "they tell me I'll win." "You won't, cheap lariam online" I replied. Cheap lariam online Well, cheap lariam online he didn't. Cheap lariam online Instead, cheap lariam online he went south and enjoyed life, cheap lariam online and we remained fast friends for the next twenty years. Cheap lariam online He was also my conduit to former Wehrmacht people because, cheap lariam online he said, cheap lariam online I could be trusted. Then I heard from an American about a man named Otto Skorzeny, cheap lariam online an Austrian who became famous by rescucing Mussolini in a commando operation. Cheap lariam online This American had been a GI where the Malmedy massacre [during the Battle of the Bulge] took place. Cheap lariam online He and a dozen other Americans were stuck during the battle in a hotel, cheap lariam online and thought they were go to be killed. Cheap lariam online Then one night this big face looked down at them and said, cheap lariam online "You are now my prisoners." It was Skorzeny, cheap lariam online who commanded a special regiment of German soldiers dressed as American GIs. Cheap lariam online He took the Americans prisoner and thereby saved them. Cheap lariam online The former GI said that Skorzeny now lives in Madrid, cheap lariam online and he asked if I would like to talk to him. Cheap lariam online I said, cheap lariam online "You're talking about 'Scarface, cheap lariam online' the guy that was going to kill Eisenhower, cheap lariam online a criminal whom you say saved your lives?" In those days, cheap lariam online everyone was trying to find Skorzeny, cheap lariam online but this former GI was ready to direct me to him. So I went down to Spain and found him in two hours! I met this huge man, cheap lariam online like a mountain, cheap lariam online who had a big scar. Cheap lariam online Wow! I had to tell him that I was John Toland, cheap lariam online and that I was going to write a book about the Battle of the Bulge. Cheap lariam online And he replied, cheap lariam online "I've been waiting for you." Well, cheap lariam online he took me home, cheap lariam online cooked me dinner, cheap lariam online and we had a marvelous time. Cheap lariam online I could see what a marvelous, cheap lariam online historical artifact I had found. Cheap lariam online He loved Hitler! He wasn't like those other characters who talked about how terrible Hitler had been. Cheap lariam online Skorzeny offered to put me in touch with former SS men living in South America and elsewhere, cheap lariam online people like former Belgian SS commander Leon Degrelle. Cheap lariam online "Fine, cheap lariam online" I replied, cheap lariam online I'll listen to anybody." And so he became my conduit to the SS. I had all these things going for me, cheap lariam online and the book itself wasa success. Cheap lariam online You know, cheap lariam online we really screwed up in the Battle of the Bulge, cheap lariam online but people love to see us screw up, cheap lariam online because we always come out ahead in the last minute of play. After talking to people like Skorzeny, cheap lariam online my perspective and thinking changed. Cheap lariam online I saw that the Germans had a point, cheap lariam online too, cheap lariam online and I presented them as human beings. Cheap lariam online Similarly, cheap lariam online I never used pejorative adjectives. Cheap lariam online You know, cheap lariam online it worked! Fortunately, cheap lariam online the people who loved my book, cheap lariam online like the GIs who were there, cheap lariam online and most of the army brass, cheap lariam online wanted to know what the enemy was really like. Cheap lariam online You see, cheap lariam online when two peoples are fighting like this, cheap lariam online do you know who the real enemy is? It's often behind them -- the guys who are pushing them to fight. Cheap lariam online The poor birds who have to do the actual fighting have no concept of what is really going on. I had never been west of Los Angeles, cheap lariam online and so I decided to visit the Far East. Cheap lariam online With my new perspective on history, cheap lariam online I decided to write about the first six months after the Pearl Harbor attack. Cheap lariam online I visited Pearl Harbor, cheap lariam online Wake Island, cheap lariam online Saipan, cheap lariam online and the Philippines, cheap lariam online and I learned about the Filipinos. In the Philippines, cheap lariam online I was seeing more Filipinos than Americans, cheap lariam online because the Americans had stopped helping me. Cheap lariam online I complained, cheap lariam online and as a result the American officer (who was like the "ugly American" character in the novel and motion picture of the same name) asked me if I wanted to meet President Garcia. Cheap lariam online After hearing my story, cheap lariam online President Garcia told a young fellow, cheap lariam online Major Ramos, cheap lariam online " I want him taken all over the Philippines." Imagine that! Here I was, cheap lariam online a nobody, cheap lariam online and I didn't have to pay a cent. Cheap lariam online I was taken all over. Cheap lariam online For example, cheap lariam online within an hour after landing at Cebu, cheap lariam online a young man told me that former President Osmaña wanted to see me the next morning. Well, cheap lariam online Osmaña was dying when I saw him, cheap lariam online and he said to me: "I must tell you the secret that [former president Manuel] Quezon told us never to reveal about the so-called collaborationists." [That is, cheap lariam online Filipino officials who cooperated with the Japanese occupation authorities during the war years]. Cheap lariam online He told me: "Just before Quezon left to go to America, cheap lariam online he called together the six most prominent men in the Philippines, cheap lariam online and he ordered them to pretend to collaborate with the Japanese in order to save the country." They were never to tell the story, cheap lariam online and it caused a great sensation when it came out. I got to meet the Aquinos, cheap lariam online whom I've now known for years. Cheap lariam online I knew Mrs. Cheap lariam online Aquino [who is now the country's president] when she was a housewife. Cheap lariam online I never imagined that she would be head of anything. Cheap lariam online Her husband was the half-brother of my friend, cheap lariam online Tony Aquino, cheap lariam online who was a playboy. Cheap lariam online Tony was a wonderful guy, cheap lariam online but his life was for pleasure. Cheap lariam online On the other hand, cheap lariam online his younger brother was, cheap lariam online at 26, cheap lariam online governor of Pampanga. Cheap lariam online I met all these people, cheap lariam online had a wonderful time, cheap lariam online before going on to Hong Kong, cheap lariam online Taiwan and, cheap lariam online finally, cheap lariam online Japan I hated the Japanese, cheap lariam online of course, cheap lariam online but after arriving in the country, cheap lariam online I thought that I'd been had. Cheap lariam online While observing women clogging along the road with their kids, cheap lariam online I thought to myself, cheap lariam online "Are these the people I'm supposed to hate? I think I'm wrong." Although I was a virtual nobody -- I had written only two books - I arrived at the Sanyo Hotel for interviews with Japanese army and navy figures, cheap lariam online the most important of whom was General Nara. Cheap lariam online He had brought along a copy of my book, cheap lariam online Battle: the Story of the Bulge. Cheap lariam online He opened it to the biographical information about myself, cheap lariam online and then his interpreter said that Nara wanted to tell me something that no officer should reveal, cheap lariam online the general said: "You Williams, cheap lariam online me Amherst. Cheap lariam online Must tell secret of Bataan." I said, cheap lariam online "Back in three days, cheap lariam online same place, cheap lariam online good interpreter." So, cheap lariam online that evening I went to the press club and told my tale of woe to all the boys sitting around, cheap lariam online and someone pointed to a very attractive young lady named Toshiko Matsumura, cheap lariam online who was coming across the room to where we were. Cheap lariam online They said that she was a very good interpreter. Cheap lariam online After we met, cheap lariam online she asked, cheap lariam online "Mr. Cheap lariam online Toland, cheap lariam online are you writing factual book or fiction?" She later often reminded me of my answer, cheap lariam online which was: "Only the facts, cheap lariam online girl!" At any rate, cheap lariam online she liked the idea and offered to help me evenings when she wasn't working. With her help I got a good story from General Nara. Cheap lariam online He told me about how he had ordered a colonel to carry out an attack against the American lines, cheap lariam online which were protected on one side by a mountain, cheap lariam online and on the other by water. The colonel took his troops over the mountain to get them to the rear. Cheap lariam online They had almost reached the top when they had to come back. Cheap lariam online The colonel asked General Nara to try again, cheap lariam online but Nara refused. Cheap lariam online Nevertheless, cheap lariam online they sneaked out and this time they made it. Cheap lariam online They got behind the Americans, cheap lariam online and that's how they cracked the American line. Cheap lariam online I tell this story in honor of all those who were involved in this campaign. Toshiko and I then went to see Admiral Genda, cheap lariam online who had been in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Cheap lariam online He was now a general, cheap lariam online and he headed the Japanese self defense forces. Cheap lariam online I became excited as he told me about the attack, cheap lariam online and I began to feel like a Japanese participant in the campaign, cheap lariam online which was wonderful. After that, cheap lariam online I talked with a flier who had taken part in the sinking of the Prince of Wales, cheap lariam online a great British battleship. The Japanese felt so terrible about sinking such a beautiful ship that the next day they flew out and dropped flowers over it! During those days, cheap lariam online as I listened to all these things, cheap lariam online I thought to myself that these are not the Japanese I had heard so much about. Cheap lariam online I told these stories in my book But Not in Shame, cheap lariam online and I felt that I was beginning to get in touch. Cheap lariam online And all the time I was thinking of Porter Emerson Browne. Another hero of mine was Edgar Snow, cheap lariam online an editor of the Saturday Evening Post. Cheap lariam online He had gone to Asia to get the real story about China, cheap lariam online which he told in his book, cheap lariam online Red Star Over China. Cheap lariam online I was very glad to finally meet Snow in New York, cheap lariam online through my Chinese friends. Cheap lariam online His book inspired me, cheap lariam online and I also wanted to uncover suppressed truth. Cheap lariam online Instead of the usual bull that you get from the media, cheap lariam online I wanted to find out what really happened. Cheap lariam online I didn't realize it at the time, cheap lariam online but I was forming "living history." The next book I wanted to write would be about the last one hundred days of the war in Europe. Cheap lariam online To research it, cheap lariam online Toshiko and I spent about eight or nine months driving around in Europe. We toured 21 countries, cheap lariam online including five countries behind the Iron Curtain. We had incredible luck. Cheap lariam online In Hungary, cheap lariam online for example, cheap lariam online we got to know that country's most prominent opera singer, cheap lariam online who was in charge of foreign travelers. Cheap lariam online He was a baritone like my father, cheap lariam online and so we became friends right away. Cheap lariam online He warned Toshiko, cheap lariam online "Please, cheap lariam online madam, cheap lariam online don't take so many pictures because the Soviets get very upset if you do that." He introduced us to Hungarian historians, cheap lariam online who told us inside stories about the Soviets. Cheap lariam online After one such meeting, cheap lariam online we found that our car had been broken into and that all of our photographs had been destroyed. Cheap lariam online However, cheap lariam online we continued on our journey. Cheap lariam online Everywhere, cheap lariam online we found people who helped us and provided useful information for my book. Cheap lariam online In Poland, cheap lariam online we were given assistance everywhere. Probably the most fantastic leg of our journey was in East Germany. Cheap lariam online This was in 1963, cheap lariam online when Americans were not permitted to travel there. Cheap lariam online It said so in our passports. Cheap lariam online While we were in West Berlin, cheap lariam online I interviewed an American journalist who had been born in Germany. Cheap lariam online He has been a young boy at the time of the bombing of Dresden in February 1945. During this interview he made a passing reference to Dresden that moved me to ask if he had been there recently. Cheap lariam online He begged me not to tell anybody, cheap lariam online and I promised that I would keep the secret only if he would tell me how I could also get into the country. Cheap lariam online So he told me how, cheap lariam online and he gave me a letter for a friend of his who was an official in the East German government. Cheap lariam online We crossed over, cheap lariam online met the woman, cheap lariam online and gave her the letter. Cheap lariam online I told her that I was working on a book about the final hundred days of the war from every side, cheap lariam online and that we wanted to visit East Germany. Cheap lariam online She told me to return in four days, cheap lariam online but not to tell anybody that I was coming. Cheap lariam online The night before we left, cheap lariam online General Polk, cheap lariam online the commanding general in West Berlin, cheap lariam online had us over for dinner. Cheap lariam online When he asked what we would be doing the next day, cheap lariam online I told him that we would be returning to West Germany. Of course we crossed over the border instead, cheap lariam online in our Volvo. Cheap lariam online We met with a young man in the foreign tourist agency who was a devoted Communist, cheap lariam online and who was very glad that we wanted to learn about the German Democratic Republic. Cheap lariam online And so it was that we spent three of the most marvelous weeks of our lives going through East Germany, cheap lariam online where we were given every possible help. The only ones who tried to stop us were the Soviets. Cheap lariam online For example, cheap lariam online Toshiko was always taking pictures of key bridges and buildings. Cheap lariam online While she did, cheap lariam online our young Communist friend would talk to guards to distract them. Cheap lariam online On one occasion, cheap lariam online we visited a location that I wanted to see in order to better tell the story of American prisoners of war. Cheap lariam online As we were coming down from the hill, cheap lariam online where I had noticed that the ground was all torn up, cheap lariam online we heard the wail of quickly approaching police sirens. Cheap lariam online Our young Communist friend told the police that he represented the government, cheap lariam online that we were guests of the government, cheap lariam online and so forth. Cheap lariam online (And he told Toshiko, cheap lariam online "For God's sake, cheap lariam online hide your camera!") So we got away free from there. Cheap lariam online When I later asked what the police had been so upset about, cheap lariam online he told us that the location, cheap lariam online of which Toshiko had taken many photos, cheap lariam online was a military tank exercise ground. How did we get back into West Germany? We were waved through a seldom-used crossing point by the West German border police, cheap lariam online who assumed that a couple like us -- one who looked like a Swede and the other Oriental _ driving a Volvo with West German license plates for foreigners must be okay. Cheap lariam online We simply drove through, cheap lariam online all the time smiling and waving. The first man we interviewed after returning was Gero von Gaevernitz, cheap lariam online who had worked with American OSS official Alan Dulles. Cheap lariam online He had told us the story of how SS General Wolff had turned over all of the German troops in a famous operation [the German surrender in Italy], cheap lariam online without any loss of life. During our final meeting with von Gaevernitz, cheap lariam online he said, cheap lariam online "John, cheap lariam online where did you come from? We got word from General Polk that you disappeared. Cheap lariam online What happened?" We told him that we had been in East Germany. Cheap lariam online He pretended that he wasn't in the CIA at that time, cheap lariam online but we knew that he was. Cheap lariam online And he said to us, cheap lariam online "East Germany? You know, cheap lariam online you're in real trouble. Cheap lariam online You'll have to report to this office in the capital. Cheap lariam online There's no name on it, cheap lariam online just a number. Cheap lariam online It's the CIA, cheap lariam online and they'll handle this thing." Well, cheap lariam online nothing ever happened to us. Cheap lariam online But I'm not going to tell you how we got away with it. Cheap lariam online You'll have to read our autobiography! Our history books portray SS GeneralKarl Wolff -- whom I've mentioned -- as a real swine. Cheap lariam online Even though he had willingly worked with von Gaevernitz and the Americans in the surrender, cheap lariam online he was held prisoner in Stadelheim prison, cheap lariam online near Munich. Cheap lariam online Well, cheap lariam online I decided to meet with Wolff, cheap lariam online even though no journalist had been permitted inside Stadelheim. Cheap lariam online I met this commandant, cheap lariam online who spoke English, cheap lariam online and I told him, cheap lariam online "Sir, cheap lariam online I want to see General Wolff." He replied, cheap lariam online "You have three minutes." Well, cheap lariam online I knew that the commandant would be interested in my story, cheap lariam online so I told him all about it. Cheap lariam online As a result, cheap lariam online I was there for almost three hours, cheap lariam online and I got the whole story from Wolff, cheap lariam online who explained why he had done what he did, cheap lariam online for for which he never got any credit. Day after day, cheap lariam online we had similar experiences in working on The Last Hundred Days , cheap lariam online which became our first big bestseller. Cheap lariam online After that I decided to rewrite my experiences about Japan. Cheap lariam online I had only been there for six weeks, cheap lariam online and I now felt that I knew nothing about the country. Cheap lariam online I wanted to dig deeper, cheap lariam online and so I said to Toshiko, cheap lariam online "Let's spend five or six years doing a book." I went to my editor at Random House and I told him, cheap lariam online "I've got a great idea. Cheap lariam online I'm going to write a book called The Rising Sun. Cheap lariam online " He replied, cheap lariam online "About Japan? But no one is interested in Japan." I said, cheap lariam online "I don't give a damn. Cheap lariam online I'm going to write a book and if you want to publish it, cheap lariam online all right." They reluctantly told me to go ahead. Cheap lariam online So after much research in the United States, cheap lariam online we went to Japan, cheap lariam online Okinawa, cheap lariam online Iwo Jima, cheap lariam online Saipan and Thailand, cheap lariam online where we spent a year and a half. Cheap lariam online That was probably the most fruitful time of my life. Cheap lariam online Moreover, cheap lariam online I was finally getting to understand things and people. I learned that Toshiko's father knew many key officials in Japan. Cheap lariam online The most important of these was Marquis Kido, cheap lariam online the Privy Seal who had been the chief advisor to the emperor. Cheap lariam online He had also kept the so-called Kido diaries. Cheap lariam online Even though he had worked with the emperor for peace, cheap lariam online he was sentenced to life imprisonment as a war criminal. Cheap lariam online And because the Americans had taken his diary and had defectively translated it, cheap lariam online and would not pay attention to his corrections, cheap lariam online hated Americans. Cheap lariam online I told my father-in-law that I had to see him. Cheap lariam online So he phoned Kido who agreed to meet with me. He was a short fellow, cheap lariam online about five feet tall, cheap lariam online but he had tremendous authority. Cheap lariam online For two days he seemed to look right through me as we talked. Cheap lariam online And then suddenly he said to me, cheap lariam online "You only want to know what happened!" I said, cheap lariam online "Yes, cheap lariam online I only want to know what happened!" He responded, cheap lariam online "Why didn't you tell me?" He then opened up and during the course of my six or seven interviews, cheap lariam online we got to the heart of this whole story. Whenever I interviewed someone, cheap lariam online whether they were a president or a private, cheap lariam online and regardless of nationality _ Itreated everyone the same -- I routinely sent the material back for checking. Cheap lariam online Other authors I knew warned me that I was crazy to do this, cheap lariam online and that I would lose every good story this way. Cheap lariam online In fact, cheap lariam online I never lost a good story. Cheap lariam online In the case of Marquis Kido, cheap lariam online for example, cheap lariam online he sent us numerous pages. Cheap lariam online For one thing, cheap lariam online I had got his religion wrong, cheap lariam online his name wrong, cheap lariam online and about ten other things like that. Cheap lariam online Most importantly, cheap lariam online he explained that I had not understood what his special relationship with the emperor was. Cheap lariam online He then explained this in great detail, cheap lariam online and told me many things he had not previously related. The Germans were astounded by this practice of mine, cheap lariam online which I followed in each case, cheap lariam online no matter who the person was. Cheap lariam online The person was able to see that I could be trusted. Cheap lariam online The few things that people wanted removed were personal matters. It took me a week to persuade Hitler's youngest secretary, cheap lariam online Traudl Junge, cheap lariam online to really agree to an interview. Cheap lariam online After several unproductive hours, cheap lariam online her sister said to her in German, cheap lariam online "Why don't you give it to him?" I wondered what she meant. Cheap lariam online Finally with a pleading look, cheap lariam online I told her I would send back everything and she could check it. Cheap lariam online In her case, cheap lariam online it came back as a thick manuscript about her personal relationship with Adolf Hitler -- a gold mine. Cheap lariam online I had my interpreter make copies, cheap lariam online and I returned her material before the time she had specified. In the book's section about her, cheap lariam online I included a portion telling how Hitler liked to arrange romances in the office. Cheap lariam online He'd had arranged a romance and a marriage with a young SS officer, cheap lariam online for example. Cheap lariam online Well, cheap lariam online she blew her top and wrote me a scathing letter. Cheap lariam online I replied by asking what she was kicking about. Cheap lariam online I told her that if she didn't want it, cheap lariam online I would cut it out. Cheap lariam online So we cut that out. Cheap lariam online However, cheap lariam online she never cut anything about Hitler. I respect the right of whomever I interview, cheap lariam online and I accurately relate what I'm told. Cheap lariam online As a result, cheap lariam online I was trusted by both Nazis and anti-Nazis -- they all knew that I knew everybody else. Cheap lariam online It's crazy, cheap lariam online but I don't know anybody else who does this, cheap lariam online and I don't understand why. Well, cheap lariam online I was very unhappy about what I'd written about Hitler in my two previous books. Cheap lariam online I regarded it as two-dimensional, cheap lariam online and not the real Hitler. Cheap lariam online So I decided to write a book about him. Cheap lariam online After talking to my wife about this project, cheap lariam online I spent six years working on the book. Cheap lariam online I returned to Germany, cheap lariam online where I interviewed many people. Cheap lariam online Manteuffel and Skorzeny were very helpful. Let me tell you about Otto Skorzeny. Cheap lariam online While working on The Last Hundred Days , cheap lariam online we met with him in Spain, cheap lariam online where he told us the marvelous story about Hungarian leader Horthy's secret deal with the Soviets to switch sides. Cheap lariam online Hitler found out about this and called in Skorzeny, cheap lariam online who was his favorite troubleshooter. Cheap lariam online He told him that he could have a regiment to take care of the situation in Hungary. Cheap lariam online Skorzeny replied, cheap lariam online "Sir, cheap lariam online I want one tank and 25 men. Cheap lariam online And I want a truck." So he went to Hungary and successfully carried out "Operation Mickey Mouse." (Horthy's son was called Miki.) Skorzeny had been inspired by reading George Bernard Shaw's play Caesar and Cleopatra, cheap lariam online in which Cleopatra(as a young girl) is stolen away from a kind of lighthouse by wrapping her in a carpet. Cheap lariam online So Skorzeny got a big rug and took it to young Horthy's apartment on Castle Hill, cheap lariam online the huge government headquarters. Cheap lariam online After saying to him "Miki, cheap lariam online I've got a present for you, cheap lariam online" he shot him in the arm, cheap lariam online rolled him up in the rug, cheap lariam online packed him in the truck, cheap lariam online put him on a plane and sent him off to Hitler. Cheap lariam online Skorzeny then phoned Horthy and told him, cheap lariam online "Your son's about to be sent to the Fuhrer's headquarters. Cheap lariam online What would you like me to do with him?" Horthy said, cheap lariam online "I never wanted him to do this, cheap lariam online tell me what you want me to do." Skorzeny told him that he wanted his cooperation in taking over Castle Hill. Cheap lariam online And so with just one tank and 25 men, cheap lariam online Skorzeny took over the entire citadel within an hour. Cheap lariam online He was most proud of the fact that he had accomplished it without almost no deaths -- he killed four Hungarians and lost two of his own men. Cheap lariam online Otto Skorzeny also told me about his great friend Hans-Ulrich Rudel, cheap lariam online who was one of the Fuhrer's greatest heroes. Cheap lariam online He was a Stuka pilot who had sunk a Soviet battleship and destroyed more than 500 Soviet tanks. Cheap lariam online A superman. Cheap lariam online Skorzeny told me the story of how Rudel had lost one leg during the last hundred days, cheap lariam online was grounded and told that he would never fly again. Cheap lariam online When Skorzeny heard that this great athlete had lost his leg, cheap lariam online he was very unhappy and visited his friend. Cheap lariam online When he arrived, cheap lariam online he heard strange thumping noises coming from Rudel's room. Cheap lariam online He opened the door and found Rudel banging his stump against the table. Cheap lariam online Otto shouted, cheap lariam online "Oh God, cheap lariam online don't do that!" Rudel said, cheap lariam online "Hi Otto, cheap lariam online how are you doing?" and Otto responded, cheap lariam online "What the hell are you doing?" Rudel answered, cheap lariam online "Getting my leg tough so I can go back in my Stuka. Cheap lariam online My mechanics are fixing it so that I can fly it with one leg." And do you know that this guy went back to his plane? Can you imagine the pull of diving like that, cheap lariam online the pain? Hitler was furious when he heard, cheap lariam online because he had ordered Rudel never to go up again. Cheap lariam online He regarded him almost as a son. To get back to my story, cheap lariam online Otto asked me if I had communicated with Rudel, cheap lariam online who lived in Chile. Cheap lariam online After I told him that he would not answer my letters, cheap lariam online Otto picked up the phone, cheap lariam online reached Rudel in Chile, cheap lariam online and told him "Toland says you're afraid to see him." Skorzeny then looked at me and said, cheap lariam online "He'll be here tomorrow." Otto told me more about his friend. Cheap lariam online "Do you know Rudel has become a champion skier? With one leg? And not only that, cheap lariam online did you know that last year he went on a climb of the highest mountain in Chile? He went up with ten people and was abandoned, cheap lariam online with no skis and one leg, cheap lariam online and after three weeks he came down again?" This was a superman; I was eager to talk with him. And that's how Otto, cheap lariam online Toshiko and I found ourselves at the airport waiting for this man with one leg. Cheap lariam online All of a sudden we saw this youngish man running as if he had three legs. Cheap lariam online It was Rudel. Cheap lariam online Otto served as our translator. Cheap lariam online Even though he had a curious English that was entirely his own, cheap lariam online we managed to get a terrific story from Rudel. I later became very friendly with Rudel. Cheap lariam online You may know he was one of the leaders of the neo-Nazi group. Cheap lariam online I visited him and his beautiful new wife and their two-year-old child at his new home on the border of Austria and Germany. Cheap lariam online When he told us of all his ideas about changing Germany, cheap lariam online I said, cheap lariam online "Gee, cheap lariam online why don't you just enjoy life." He simply said, cheap lariam online "No. Cheap lariam online What can I do for you?" I told him about Hitler's air force adjutant, cheap lariam online a snob who was the only Hitler adjutant I was not able to meet. Cheap lariam online So Rudel phoned this fellow and told him, cheap lariam online "Rudel here. Cheap lariam online Toland is here and he's going to tell our story. Cheap lariam online You are going to see him." And that's how he got this air force snob to see me. Meeting a man such as Rudel was really something. Cheap lariam online For example, cheap lariam online as he told me, cheap lariam online at the end of the war he refused to let the enemy capture him. Cheap lariam online He flew directly to an American airfield in spite of their guns and so forth. Cheap lariam online Later, cheap lariam online British airmen treated him chivalrously and were glad to shake the hand of the great Rudel. Cheap lariam online Doug Bader, cheap lariam online a great British ace and his country's most popular airman, cheap lariam online lost both legs during the war, cheap lariam online but flew with artificial limbs. Cheap lariam online He sent Rudel his first artificial leg. After completing my biography of Hitler, cheap lariam online I was disgusted with this whole subject, cheap lariam online and I wanted to get away from it. Cheap lariam online What made Hitler do all these things? So I decided to look into the First World War, cheap lariam online and I began to work on a book entitled No Man's Land. In response to my book The Rising Sun I received many letters -- mostly from naval officers -- who told me that I was mistaken in writing that Roosevelt did not know in advance that the Japanese task force was on its way to attack Pearl Harbor. Cheap lariam online I received so many letters that I told Toshiko that I might have made a terrible mistake. Cheap lariam online I decided to write another book and find out if I had been wrong. Cheap lariam online Well, cheap lariam online I went at it in my usual manner and within a year found out that I had been mistaken. Cheap lariam online Franklin Roosevelt did know. Cheap lariam online For example, cheap lariam online after a two-year search I had located a certain Admiral Ranneft, cheap lariam online a Dutchman. Cheap lariam online In late 1941 he had been a captain, cheap lariam online and was serving as the Dutch naval attaché in Washington. After we established contact, cheap lariam online he wrote to me: "You might be interested in my story. Cheap lariam online Did you know that I was the one who brought the plan for the Bofors anti-aircraft guns to the U.S. Cheap lariam online Navy, cheap lariam online and because of that they used to let me into the Navy secret intelligence office all the time? And on December 3, cheap lariam online 1941, cheap lariam online I went in there and they told me they had discovered two apparent carriers, cheap lariam online obviously Japanese, cheap lariam online heading towards the east. Cheap lariam online When I returned there on the afternoon of December 6, cheap lariam online I asked where the two carriers were now. Cheap lariam online The commanding officer motioned to a man who went up to the board and pointed to an area two hundred miles from Pearl Harbor". "Wow! That's a great story, cheap lariam online" I told Ranneft, cheap lariam online "but I just can't just take your word for it. Cheap lariam online What about some documentation?" It's in my war diary, cheap lariam online" he replied. Cheap lariam online "You know, cheap lariam online some of it burned up here, cheap lariam online but I sent the rest to The Hague. Cheap lariam online Why don't you inquire there?" Two weeks later, cheap lariam online I received the entire December 1941 portion of his diary. Cheap lariam online Everything he told me was right there, cheap lariam online proving that we knew that the Japanese were coming. Cheap lariam online By the way, cheap lariam online that evidence has been pooh-poohed by those who can't believe it. Another great lead: one evening a man phoned me to tell me that he had been the person who had located the Japanese force in the Pacific. Cheap lariam online He was just a young navy enlisted man at the time, cheap lariam online but he was a brilliant electronics specialist and eventually became a millionaire because of his inventions. Cheap lariam online (For example, cheap lariam online he invented the anchor that is used by all of our small craft. Cheap lariam online Everyone who has a yacht uses one.) So after listening to what he had to say, cheap lariam online I said, cheap lariam online "Fine. Cheap lariam online I'll come up to Maine and see you." After spending an entire day with him, cheap lariam online I believed him. Cheap lariam online But I told I him that I would come back the next day with my wife. Cheap lariam online I returned with Toshiko, cheap lariam online and after we spent another whole day with him, cheap lariam online she said to me: "He's telling the truth." Well, cheap lariam online about six months later, cheap lariam online he called up in a jovial mood and said, cheap lariam online "Oh, cheap lariam online John, cheap lariam online I'm getting married! You know, cheap lariam online I'm marrying a woman who owns almost all of California and she doesn't like publicity. Cheap lariam online Do you mind not using my name?" I said, cheap lariam online "Okay, cheap lariam online I'll call you Seaman Z." I then asked about the photographs he had given me of himself. Cheap lariam online "Oh, cheap lariam online use the pictures, cheap lariam online" he said, cheap lariam online because, cheap lariam online you see, cheap lariam online he really did want to be uncovered. Well, cheap lariam online when my book Infamy was published, cheap lariam online the Washington Post claimed that I had invented "Seaman Z." About a year later he came out in the open and publicly confirmed what I has written, cheap lariam online but this was not mentioned in the media. The most important part of my book was my treatment of the various trials and investigations into the Pearl Harbor affair. Cheap lariam online I was floundering because I had all this great stuff, cheap lariam online butI was not able to put it all together. Cheap lariam online I was trying to support Captain Safford, cheap lariam online the naval genius who realized that all his information had been destroyed. Cheap lariam online So he went to a Boston lawyer named Rugg, cheap lariam online who was representing Admiral Kimmel, cheap lariam online who was getting the blame for Pearl Harbor. I was saved by a man named Percy Greaves. Cheap lariam online I had heard about this strange fellow up in Dobbs Ferry (New York), cheap lariam online who had been collecting material about Pearl Harbor for years. Cheap lariam online After talking to him by phone, cheap lariam online I went to see him. Cheap lariam online We got along well together, cheap lariam online and I visited him dozens of times during the next six months. Cheap lariam online He allowed me free access to his dank, cheap lariam online dark cellar, cheap lariam online where he fed his dog and where he kept all this precious material. Cheap lariam online I owe a great deal of the quality of Infamy to Percy Greaves. [Editor's note: Until his death in 1984, cheap lariam online Greaves was a frequent contributor to The Journal, cheap lariam online served as an IHR editorial adviser, cheap lariam online and addressed the Third IHR Conference (1981). Cheap lariam online See the JHR issues of Fall 1982 (pp. Cheap lariam online 319-340), cheap lariam online Winter 1983-84(pp. Cheap lariam online 388-474), cheap lariam online and Winter 1984 (pp. Cheap lariam online 444-445).] Finally, cheap lariam online I would like to tell you about the book we've been working on for the last three years. Cheap lariam online It's a history of the Korean War. Cheap lariam online We've done a great deal of research on this in Korea, cheap lariam online Taiwan and China. Cheap lariam online Through our contacts, cheap lariam online we were finally invited to China itself, cheap lariam online and our visit there was one of the most important times of our lives. When we arrived in Beijing in late April 1989, cheap lariam online the Chinese historians I had been in touch with were very excited because the students were organizing a revolt. Cheap lariam online They were protesting against the corruption of the fat cats in power, cheap lariam online and were receiving tremendous public support. Well, cheap lariam online on the fourth of May, cheap lariam online we were interviewing a young lieutenant colonel from the People's Liberation Army who had written a book about the Korean war. Cheap lariam online Unfortunately, cheap lariam online I got nothing from him because he would not let me tape him and he refused to answer any of my tough questions. Cheap lariam online When we went out for lunch, cheap lariam online we saw this great flood of students coming back from the first demonstration at Tienanmen Square. Cheap lariam online It was most exciting. Cheap lariam online When we returned to the young lieutenant colonel after lunch, cheap lariam online he was very excited and said, cheap lariam online "I'm going to bring my old professor to see you. Cheap lariam online He was the first to write about the Korean War. Cheap lariam online He was a top commissar there. Cheap lariam online Maybe he will be willing to tell you about it." Two days later he introduced us to this large man. Cheap lariam online Dressed in a dark Mao uniform, cheap lariam online he looked like a bear. Cheap lariam online When we sat down, cheap lariam online I asked him if I could tape him, cheap lariam online and he said, cheap lariam online "Yes. Cheap lariam online I'm not going to tell you about my book. Cheap lariam online I'm going to tell you things I couldn't put in my book." He then began revealing all this marvelous information. Cheap lariam online Toshiko asked him if she could take his picture, cheap lariam online and he readily agreed. Cheap lariam online He put a big arm around me for a picture that we could use for publicity if we wanted. Cheap lariam online All this was a great breakthrough. The next day we were invited to lecture on living history at the Academy of Military Science. Cheap lariam online It turned out that the entire staff had read my books, cheap lariam online five of which have been published in China. Cheap lariam online Our lecture was very well received. Cheap lariam online Afterwards, cheap lariam online the commanding general allowed us to take his picture. Cheap lariam online And then they opened up this archival material to us, cheap lariam online which told what the Korean War was like, cheap lariam online what Mao was like, cheap lariam online and so forth. The media horribly misrepresented the Chinese students' revolt. Cheap lariam online This was only a limited revolt against corruption by the top officials, cheap lariam online but the TV circus turned it into a demonstration for democracy, cheap lariam online which they did not understand at all. Cheap lariam online Their older professors told them "You have won. Cheap lariam online Now leave Tienanmen Square." But no, cheap lariam online they were told to put up a kind of statue of liberty, cheap lariam online and the media turned the thing into a tragedy. Cheap lariam online No one has written the truth about what really happened. Cheap lariam online The young Chinese were doing something very Chinese. Cheap lariam online It was not like we all saw on television, cheap lariam online and turning it into a Western thing corrupted the spirit of the entire campaign. Fortunately, cheap lariam online we managed to get out of China with all our material, cheap lariam online and as soon as we got out, cheap lariam online the doors closed again. After writing seven histories of war in the twentieth century, cheap lariam online I've come to a number of conclusions. Cheap lariam online It is human nature that repeats itself, cheap lariam online not history. Cheap lariam online In fact, cheap lariam online we often learn more about the past from the present, cheap lariam online than the reverse. Cheap lariam online I have also discovered that a vile man can occasionally tell the truth, cheap lariam online and a noble man can tell a lie. Cheap lariam online And that men don't make history as often as history makes men. Cheap lariam online That the course of history is not only unpredictable, cheap lariam online but inevitable. Cheap lariam online Finally, cheap lariam online I've learned that the writing of history can never be definitive. I have tried to approach history as a non-partisan, cheap lariam online ignoring nationality and ideology, cheap lariam online and to portray the horrors of war through the sufferings of ordinary people as well as in the imaginations of the mighty. Cheap lariam online Throughout it all, cheap lariam online I have tried to present living history, cheap lariam online human history, cheap lariam online with subjective objectivity, cheap lariam online in my obsessive search for reality.


John Toland (1912-2004) was an acclaimed and best-selling American historian. Cheap lariam online This essay is from his address at the Tenth IHR Conference, cheap lariam online October 1990, cheap lariam online in Washington , cheap lariam online DC . Cheap lariam online It was published in The Journal of Historical Review, cheap lariam online Spring 1991 (Vol. Cheap lariam online 11, cheap lariam online No. Cheap lariam online 1), cheap lariam online pages 5-24.