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 I never knew about this, order cheap calcium carbonate online did you? The Forsaken: Americans in Stalin's gulags Noel Malcolm reviews The Forsaken: From the Great Depression to the Gulags by Tim Tzouliadis http://www.independent.ie/multimedia/archive/00193/ussr_193726b.jpg http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/graphics/2008/07/20/botzo120.jpg Americans baseball team in Gorky Park, order cheap calcium carbonate online Moscow, order cheap calcium carbonate online 1934 Russia in the late 1930s was not a good place to be. People really did sleep in their outdoor clothes, order cheap calcium carbonate online with a ready-packed suitcase at their bedside, order cheap calcium carbonate online waiting for the NKVD (the secret police) to knock on the door. You could be arrested and killed for a joke, order cheap calcium carbonate online for a factual remark about a food shortage, order cheap calcium carbonate online or for failing to denounce other people, order cheap calcium carbonate online including your immediate family. And you could also be arrested and killed for nothing at all, order cheap calcium carbonate online since the NKVD, order cheap calcium carbonate online like other elements of the Soviet economy, order cheap calcium carbonate online had productivity targets to meet Anyone who was different was suspect. In 1937, order cheap calcium carbonate online 53 members of a deaf-mutes' association were arrested in Leningrad, order cheap calcium carbonate online and 33 were sentenced to death for conducting 'conspiracies' in sign-language. Stamp-collectors, order cheap calcium carbonate online who had shown an unhealthy interest in letters from foreign countries, order cheap calcium carbonate online were hunted down, order cheap calcium carbonate online and so too were people who had learnt Esperanto. If life was as bad as this for Russians, order cheap calcium carbonate online just think how bad it must have been for people who were trying to live like Russians, order cheap calcium carbonate online but were in fact Americans. Not tourists, order cheap calcium carbonate online businessmen, order cheap calcium carbonate online or diplomats; no, order cheap calcium carbonate online these were just ordinary working people, order cheap calcium carbonate online who had moved to the Soviet Union. Their total number is unknown, order cheap calcium carbonate online but it must have run to several thousands, order cheap calcium carbonate online and their story - the subject of Tim Tzouliadis's gripping and important book - has never been fully told before. Why had they come? Some were idealistic Communists, order cheap calcium carbonate online or left-wingers whose trade-union activism had cost them their jobs in the US. But most were just looking for work, order cheap calcium carbonate online having lost their jobs in the way that millions of other Americans lost theirs, order cheap calcium carbonate online in the Great Depression. While American industry contracted, order cheap calcium carbonate online Russia had been recruiting skilled technicians, order cheap calcium carbonate online not least to run the giant car factory which was purchased - en bloc - from Henry Ford and plonked down on the banks of the Volga. At first, order cheap calcium carbonate online life was good for most of these immigrants - better, order cheap calcium carbonate online certainly, order cheap calcium carbonate online than the life of the unemployed in the US. They were fêted by the Russian media, order cheap calcium carbonate online and the authorities allowed major stadiums to be used for their baseball matches. The workers of the world were able to unite at last, order cheap calcium carbonate online it seemed, order cheap calcium carbonate online losing their chains but not their bats and gloves. True, order cheap calcium carbonate online there were a few little warning signs. Many of the immigrants were relieved of their American passports on arrival, order cheap calcium carbonate online never to see them again. Order cheap calcium carbonate online (Suitably doctored, order cheap calcium carbonate online some of the passports were used for sending Soviet agents to America.) Wages which the Russian authorities had promised to deposit in US bank accounts mysteriously failed to appear there. Pressure was put on some of the Americans to take up Soviet citizenship, order cheap calcium carbonate online thereby losing the protection of international law; and some found that they had taken it up unknowingly, order cheap calcium carbonate online having been made to sign forms in Russian which they could not read. But with the onset of the Terror, order cheap calcium carbonate online it hardly mattered what anyone had signed. To visit the American Embassy in Moscow, order cheap calcium carbonate online in order to register US citizenship, order cheap calcium carbonate online was in many cases to write one's own death sentence: NKVD men waited on the other side of the street, order cheap calcium carbonate online seized people as they emerged, order cheap calcium carbonate online and bundled them into vans. Nor were the most prominent and idealistic pro-Communists immune from arrest - rather the opposite. Reverend Julius Hecker, order cheap calcium carbonate online a Methodist from Columbia University who had published several books in the US defending Communism, order cheap calcium carbonate online was arrested, order cheap calcium carbonate online tortured and, order cheap calcium carbonate online before he was shot, order cheap calcium carbonate online made to confess that his books were just an elaborate cover for espionage. At the heart of this book are the stories of two extraordinary young men, order cheap calcium carbonate online Thomas Sgovio and Victor Herman; both were seized, order cheap calcium carbonate online tortured and sent to some of the worst Gulag camps, order cheap calcium carbonate online at which the great majority of the inmates died from starvation, order cheap calcium carbonate online disease, order cheap calcium carbonate online overwork and physical abuse. Thanks to their physical toughness (Herman was a keen boxer who, order cheap calcium carbonate online when placed in a cell full of psychopathic Russian criminals whose task it was to kill him, order cheap calcium carbonate online pulverised two of them and was then accepted into their gang), order cheap calcium carbonate online and thanks also to some extraordinary good luck, order cheap calcium carbonate online both survived. Decades later, order cheap calcium carbonate online both returned to America, order cheap calcium carbonate online and wrote detailed accounts of their experiences. More of the article can be read at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2008/07/20/botzo120.xml